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What is LEDs? Short note

LEDs are special diodes that emit light when connected in a circuit. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor p-n junction operating  under proper forward biased conditions and are capable of emitting external spontaneous radiations in the visible range (370nm to 770 nm ) or they nearly ultraviolet and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Circuit Symbol

Advantages of LEDIt has a simple fabrication since there are no mirror facets and in some structure no striped geometry.The simple construction of LED leds to much reduced cost.It is reliable as it does not exhibit catastrophic degradation.It has simple drive circuitry due to generally lower drive currents and reduced temperature dependence. The LED has a linear light output against current characteristics. Disadvantages of LEDLower optical power coupled into a fiber.Usually lower modulation bandwidth.Harmonic distortion.

What is microprocessors?


A microprocessor is multipurpose, programmable clock driven, register based electronics device that reads binary instruction from a storage device called memory, accepts binary data as input and processes data according to those instructions and provide output. A set of instructions written for the microprocessor to perform a task is called a program and group of programs is called software.
Microprocessor is controlling element in a computer system and is sometimes referred to as the CPU(central processing unit) . A microprocessor can control memory and I/O (input/Output) device through a series of connections called buses. Buses select I/O or memory device, transfer data between an I/O device or memory or the microprocessor, and control the I/O and memory system.
Microprocessor performs three main tasks for the computer system:
1.       Data transfer between itself and the memory or I/O systems.
2.       Simple arithmetic and logic operation.
3.       Program flow vai simple decisions.
Power of the microprocessor is in its ability to execute millions of instruction per second form a program or software stored in the memory system.
What is the memory Unit?
Memory unit consist of sequence of memory cells used to stored data and instructions during the execution of programme. Programme and data are stored in memory for execution of programme to perform a required task. After result obtained after executing the program can also be stored in the memory or can be display by the output device.
Input/Output devices
The users can enter instruction and data into memory through an input such as keyboard or simple switches. The microprocessor reds the instruction form the memory and processes the data according to these instruction. The result can be displayed by an output device.

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